Global English (essay)

      English is the global language of the modern world. The English language is a lingua franca, or a common language of the economic, political and scientific world. 

      Kachru and Nelson divide users of English into three circles: the inner circle where English is the first language, such as the United States of America, Great Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand; the outer circle which includes the countries with a long history of institutionalized functions, such as India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Singapore, South Africa and Zambia;  and the expanding circle where countries use English for specific purposes, especially science and technology, such as China, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea and Nepal.

           English gained its strong position as a result of the colonial policy of Great Britain. North America and Australia are inhabited mainly by English speaking people. In the nineteenth century, England became a rich and powerful country due to progress in technology; generally everybody who wanted to do business with it had to learn its language. In the middle of the twentieth century, there were a lot of talented musicians and singers in Great Britain and the USA. They were very successful. Moreover, English is a very melodious language, so it was spread by pop music all over the world. Hollywood (the world´s most influential film industry) contributed to the great success of English too. English is also used in world sports. Overall one and half billion people – around one-quarter of the world´s population – can communicate in English, however, the significance of English is not only the result of the number of speakers. Chinese has more native speakers, but the language is too complicated to become a world language.

     I find English perfectly fitting and accurate. Crystal reminds his readers of Richard Mulcaster, the headmaster of Merchant Taylors´School, ´s words from 1765: “I do not think that any language is better able to utter all arguments, either with more pith or greater plainness, as our English tongue is.“, and then Crystal himself concludes: “A decade later, and Shakespeare would begin to prove him right.“ Nowadays the exchange of information is broader. Some large counries tried to publish the information in their own language, for example France. In the past, French was accepted to be a diplomatic language for a long time. After the huge colonial empire gained its position, everything was changed. Although now many words , for example in medical science, law and other fields, are still given in Latin, those  are only individual descriptive expressions used for certain categorization and clarity. As a continuous language, only English is used in all the fields mentioned above.     

     The way of the English language to the today´s position of a global language was neither easy nor straightforward at all. Nevertheless, nowadays English, with all its positives, is found to be the bridge between nations, and it is expected that the English language will also dominate as a global language in the coming years.

Helena is not less attractive than Hermia. She only thinks she is. (essay)

While reading and watching the play I enjoyed  following and observing the main characters´ traits and qualities as well as how their nature will influence the  characters´success in life. I was thinking about whether it would be the same or similar in today´s  real life. Both the girls I have chosen for my research – the  characters in MND – Hermia and also Helena, are depicted as beautiful. However, it seems that Helena does not know  it or does not believe it as her behaviour shows. This is obvious from some situations in the story, e.g.: At one time both the young men – Lysander  and Demetrius – (although it is under the influence of  magic) have fallen in love with Helena, but  Helena thinks that they are only making fun of her.  In my opinion, the comparison of the characters Hermia and Helena according to their confidence is connected to today´s world very closely because the confidence in general is frequently used nowadays. Personally  I think confidence and self-assurance are very significant in the contemporary world, but  on the other hand, it is necessary for the confidence to be justified, and also for the self-assurance to be realistic, not only pretended as it happens too often.

Sources

Notari, Debbie.“Hermia from A Midsummer Night´s Dream: Character Traits, Analysis and Monologue“. Study.com. 2018

https://study.com/academy/lesson/hermia-from-a-midsummer-nights-dream-character-traits-analysis-monologue.html. Accessed 13 January 2019.

      This video with the tapescript depicts  the traits of the characters in A Midsummer Night´s Dream. According to this source, Hermia is not only beautiful, but also courageous as she chooses a course of her own and risks adventure in a magical wood. However, at first it is not so easy for her since she has to overcome unfavourable circumstances. Gradually she must face her fear to ensure a happy ending. The author also writes that Helena, unlike Hermia, is not trusting and moreover betrays Hermia´s trust because she reveals Lysander´s and Hermia´s plan to Demetrius. From her behaviour  it is possible to infer her qualities.

“A Midsummer Night´s Dream“. Sparknotes,2019

https://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/msnd/character/helena/. Accessed 13 January 2019.

      In this text the author writes about Helena. She is depicted as one of the most personable characters in A Midsummer Night´s Dream. She is also the most fully drawn in the book. In the article, apart from other things, it is mentioned that Helena says that love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind. This confirms her good nature. The author of the text also writes about Helena´s extreme uncertainty and doubts about herself and worrying about her appearance. According to the author of the text, she thinks, that Demetrius only appreciates Hermia´s beauty.

“A Midsummer Night´s Dream“. Wikipedia. 1 December 2018.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_(A_Midsummer_Night%27s_Dream)

Accessed 13 January 2019.

      In this article Helena is depicted as one of the four young lovers in MND. Apart from other things, the  author also states that she often compares herself with her friend Hermia. In the picture which accompanies the article Hermia and Helena are depicted and they both look beautiful. The author also writes that her abiding love for Demetrius remains consistent throughout the play. However, after Lysander falls in love with Helena, she is shocked , hurt and confused. This author also highlights the well-known quote about love looking not with the eyes, but with the mind. They also claim that Helena´s name is reminiscent of the famous Helen of Troy and her character is similar to another Helena of Shakespeare´s  in All´s Well that End´s Well.

Mc Dowall, David. An Illustrated History of Britain: Longman 2014

      The comedy A Midsummer Night´s Dream by Shakespeare was written between the years 1590 and 1596. This time is described in the book An Illustrated History of Britain as a most glorious period in English history.  According to the author David Mc Dowal, in those days Henry VII Tudor built the  foundations of a wealthy nation state and powerful monarchy.  Henry VIII made the Church in England really English and his daughter Elizabeth brought glory to the state by defeating the navy of Spain.  During the Tudor age England experienced one of the greatest artistic periods in its history.   Shakespeare´s plays were popular with both educated and uneducated people. Many of his plays  were about English history.

I have included the themes which are somehow connected to the background of English as I consider it to be important.

As for the progress of my writing, I think it gradually improves with improving my grammar and use of English, which I am studying in Syntax and Linguistics.

In my view, it is necessary to improve, continuously, every single skill of a language to improve the language as such. It is also possible to say that someone´s language is as good as his or her weakest skill is.